I'm not exactly sure what you intend to do, but at the most basic level the answer to your question is yes.
The Thunderbolt 3 (USB-C) ports on the 2016 and 2017 MacBook Pros can simultaneously support charging and data transfer. However, this will be dependent on the cables/adapters/hubs/docks etc being used. If they support/allow both charging and data transfer then you should have no problems.
In summary, the Thunderbolt 3 (USB-C) ports support each of the following:
- Thunderbolt (up to 40 Gbps)
- USB 3.1 Gen 2 (up to 10 Gbps)
If you're after independent verification that multiple features are supported simultaneously, then refer to Using USB-C and Thunderbolt 3 (USB-C) ports and adapters on your Mac notebook. You'll notice, for example, that under the heading USB-C Digital AV Multiport Adapter it states:
The USB-C Digital AV Multiport Adapter allows you to simultaneously:
- Charge your Mac.
- Connect to other standard USB (USB-A) devices or hubs.
- Connect your Mac to external HDMI video devices such as a TV, projector, or display.
NOTE: Bold emphasis mine.
Now, as I mentioned previously, a lot gets down to what is supported by the individual cable, adapter, etc. For example, even about its USB-C Digital AV Multiport Adapter, Apple says that:
- The USB-A port on the adapter supports data transfer at up to 5 Gbps (USB 3.1 Gen 1) and can be used to connect standard USB devices or hubs.
- The USB-C port on the adapter charges your computer, but it doesn't transfer data.
Note how the USB-A port on this adapter only supports speeds of up to 5 Gbps, while the MBP supports USB speeds up to 10 Gbps. Also note how USB-C port on this particular adapter is limited to only charging. However, the USB-C port on the MBP is not limited in this way, because the USB-C Digital AV Multiport Adapter connects to it and then provides simultaneous functionality to all three of its ports for charging, USB-A devices and HDMI devices.
Now, depending on your specific model of MacBook Pro (you don't specify), the data transfer speeds may vary depending on the port used. More specifically:
Thunderbolt 3 data speeds per MacBook Pro port
MacBook Pro models introduced in 2016 vary slightly in the data speeds
they provide to each Thunderbolt 3 port:
- MacBook Pro (15-inch, 2016) delivers full Thunderbolt 3 performance on all four ports.
- MacBook Pro (13-inch, 2016, Four Thunderbolt 3 Ports) supports Thunderbolt 3 at full performance using the two left-hand ports. The
two right-hand ports deliver Thunderbolt 3 functionality, but have
reduced PCI Express bandwidth.
Always plug higher-performance devices into the left-hand ports on MacBook Pro (13-inch, 2016, Four Thunderbolt 3 Ports) for maximum data
- MacBook Pro (13-inch, 2016, Two Thunderbolt 3 Ports) delivers full Thunderbolt 3 performance on both ports.
About USB speed
For USB devices, all 2016 MacBook Pro models deliver USB 3.1 Gen 2 (10
Gbps) performance on all Thunderbolt 3 ports.
Use a USB-C to USB adapter to connect a USB-A device or cable to a
Thunderbolt 3 port on your MacBook Pro. Use a USB 3.1 (USB-C to USB-C)
cable to connect a USB-C device.